Actually, during the Song, although marginal, this dual acceptation of supernaturalism and its antithesis manifests itself not only in Chan biographies, but also in doctrinal writings of the school.

This paper explores the theme of Chan interaction with indigneous Chinese religions and deities.

Early Chan texts de-emphasized miracles, focusing on doctrine and dharma transmission, but by the 9th and 10th centuries, Chan biographies embraced accounts of Buddhist dominance over local cults, mirroring a trend in broader Chinese Buddhist hagiography. Finally, the study ends with a look at a syncretic model in Song Chan writings, which presented a veiled challenge to idolatry and redefined supranturalism to serve new Chan doctrines.