Zhiyi was notable as a systematizer and domesticator of Buddhist knowledge, and particularly for his writings on śamatha and vipaśyanā meditation. The excerpt translated below is a complete chapter from the shorter of his meditation treatises. It focuses specifically on how various strands of Indian and Chinese medical and religious knowledge could be employed to diagnose and treat illness while the practitioner remained engaged in seated meditation.

Incorporating both foreign and domestic knowledge into the framework of śamatha and vipaśyanā , this chapter represents one of the earliest examples of systematic Indo-Sinitic medical syncretism, and one of the most important expressions of a unique medieval Chinese Buddhist perspective on healing.